• Eldy Bianca Primadi Sebelas Maret University
  • Hunik Sri Runing Sawitri Sebelas Maret University
Keywords: co-worker support, job insecurity, organizational commitment, turnover intention, social loafing


This study investigated the relationship between co-worker support, cognitive and affective job insecurity, as well as the employee’s organizational commitment to social loafing behavior with the employee’s turnover intention as a mediating variable. A survey method was implemented in this quantitative research where data was collected by distributing an online questionnaire. The purposive and snowball sampling techniques were used to select this study’s respondents. A total of 285 questionnaires were successfully distributed in 8 fast-food restaurants in Bandung, Indonesia. The proposed hypotheses were then tested by using the structural equation model with the help of the Lisrel 8.8 software. The analysis of this study’s results showed that the support of co-workers has a negative effect on the employee’s turnover intention. Whereas cognitive and affective job insecurity has positive impacts on turnover intention. The organizational commitment variable also has a negative impact on the employee’s turnover intention. On the other hand, the employee’s turnover intention has a positive effect on their social loafing behavior. Meanwhile, the factors with indirect influences are the mediating effect of turnover intention on the relationship between co-worker support and social loafing, affective job insecurity and social loafing, as well as cognitive job insecurity and social loafing.


Akgunduz, Y., & Eryilmaz, G. (2018). Does turnover intention mediate the effects of job insecurity and co-worker support on social loafing? International Journal of Hospitality Management.

Beehr, T. A., & McGrath, J. E. (1992). Social support, occupational stress and anxiety. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping.

Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and Power in Social Life. New York: Wiley and Sons. Bock, G. W. and Young-Gul, K.

Bluedorn, A. C. (1982). A Unified Model of Turnover from Organizations. Human Relations, 35(2).

Bultena, C. D. (1998). Social exchange under fire: Direct and moderated effects of job insecurity on social exchange. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.

Cheng, B. S., Jiang, D. Y., & Riley, J. H. (2003). Organizational commitment, supervisory commitment, and employee outcomes in the Chinese context: Proximal hypothesis or global hypothesis? Journal of Organizational Behavior.

Daft, R. L. (2008). Management. In South-Western Cengage Learning.

Dubas, K. M., & Nijhawan, I. P. (2007). A hman capital theory perspective of sales force training, productivity, compensation, and turnover. Proceeding of the Academy of Marketing Studies, 12(2).

Ducharme, L. J., Knudsen, H. K., & Roman, P. M. (2008). Emotional exhaustion and turnover intention in human service occupations: The protective role of coworker support. Sociological Spectrum, 28(1).

Fisher, C. D. (1985). Social Support and Adjustment to Work: A Longitudinal Study. Journal of Management, 11(3).

Glissmeyer, M., Bishop, J. W., & Fass, R. D. (2007). Role conflict, role ambiguity, and intention to quit the organization: the case of law enforcement officers. 38th Southwest Decision Sciences Institute Annual Conference.

Gouldner, A. W. (1960). The Norm of Reciprocity: A Preliminary Statement. American Sociological Review.

Greenhalgh, L., & Rosenblatt, Z. (2010). Evolution of research on job insecurity. International Studies of Management and Organization.

Kang, D. seok, Gold, J., & Kim, D. (2012). Responses to job insecurity: The impact on discretionary extra-role and impression management behaviors and the moderating role of employability. Career Development International.

Karatepe, O. M., & Olugbade, O. A. (2017). The effects of work social support and career adaptability on career satisfaction and turnover intentions. Journal of Management and Organization, 23(3).

Karau, S. J., & Williams, K. D. (1993). Social Loafing: A Meta-Analytic Review and Theoretical Integration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

Khan, M. S., Kundi, D. G. M., Khan, D. S., Khan, I., Khan, H., & Yar, N. B. (2014). The Cause-& Effect and Correlation between Job Satisfaction and Organizational commitment on Intention to leave among the Academicians in higher Educational Institutions of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 4(2).

Kline, & Rex, B. (2011). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling, 3rd edition Guilford Press. In The Guilford Press New York London.

Kreitner, R., & Kinicki, A. (2014). Perilaku Organisasi Organizational Behavior. In 1.

Luo, Z., Qu, H., & Marnburg, E. (2013). Justice perceptions and drives of hotel employee social loafing behavior. International Journal of Hospitality Management.

Luthans, F. (2012). Organizational behavior an evidence-based approach 12th edition. In Organizational behavior: an edivence-based approach.

Menguc, B., & Boichuk, J. P. (2012). Customer orientation dissimilarity, sales unit identification, and customer-directed extra-role behaviors: Understanding the contingency role of coworker support. Journal of Business Research.

Myers, D. G. (2012). Introducing social psychology. Social Psychology.

Pienaar, J., De Witte, H., Hellgren, J., Sverke, M., (2013). The cognitive/affective distinction of job insecurity: Validation and differential relations. Southern African Business Review.

Porter, L. W., Steers, R. M., Mowday, R. T., & Boulian, P. V. (1974). Organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover among psychiatric technicians. Journal of Applied Psychology.

Rosenblatt, Z., & Ruvio, A. (1996). A test of a multidimensional model of job insecurity: The case of Israeli teachers. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management.<587::aid-job825>;2-j

Russ, F. A., & McNeilly, K. M. (1995). Links among satisfaction, commitment, and turnover intentions: The moderating effect of experience, gender, and performance. Journal of Business Research, 34(1).

Smet, B. (2012). Psikologi kesehatan. Journal of Public Health, 2(2).

Yücel, I. (2012). Examining the Relationships among Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Turnover Intention: An Empirical Study. International Journal of Business and Management, 7(20).

How to Cite
Eldy Bianca Primadi, & Hunik Sri Runing Sawitri. (2023). THE INFLUENCE OF CO-WORKER SUPPORT, JOB INSECURITY, AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT ON SOCIAL LOAFING: THE ROLE OF TURNOVER INTENTION. Proceedings of The International Conference on Multi-Disciplines Approaches for The Sustainable Development, 116-122. Retrieved from