SPEECH DELAY DISORDER IN EARLY CHILDHOOD
This research is a descriptive qualitative research in the form of literature studies from various references that are relevant to speech delay disorders in early childhood. This research aims to find out how children who experience speech delays are handled according to the type and causes of speech delays. Based on the results and discussion of the research, it can be concluded several things. The causes of speech delay in children are numerous and broad, namely, Mental retardation, Hearing loss, Maturation delay, Expressive language disorder, Psychosocial deprivation, Autism, Elective mutism, and Cerebral palsy. Those causes affect the children’s language development. The children’s language development is influenced by 5 factors, namely: health factors, intelligence, socioeconomic status, gender, and family relationships. Related to the factors that influence children’s language development. Then came the types of speech delays in children, namely; 1) Specific Language Impairment; 2) Speech and Language Expressive Disorder; 3) Centrum Auditory Processing Disorder; 4) Pure Dysphatic Development; 5) Gifted Visual Spatial Learner; 6) Disynchronous Developmental. After understanding about the types of speech delay in children, then treatment of speech delay can be selected. Treatment of speech delay begins with patient identification such as medical history, speaking ability, listening ability, cognitive ability, and communication ability. Then the treatment is continued with the diagnosis of disorders experienced by the patient. After the results of the diagnosis are obtained, then the appropriate therapy is applied to the patient such as Speech Therapy, Oral Motor Therapy, and Melodic Intonation Therapy. Therefore, this research is expected to provide benefits to parents with speech delays. So that parents can detect whether their child has a speech delay early and provide appropriate treatment immediately.
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